PAST PERFECT TENSE
PAST PERFECT TENSE
- Geçmişteki bir olay veya andan daha önce gerçekleşmiş veya o anda bitmiş olaylar için kullanılır. Yalnız başına kullanılmaz. Ya Past bir cümleyle bağlıdır veya zaten past olan bağlamda bir geriye dönüş yaşanmıştır.
- By the time I returned home he had already left.
- When/After he (had) completed his project, he took his annual leave.
- Before the police arrived, the thieves had already gone away.
- She had been married for 7 years when her son was born
- I came to the city when I was young. I hadn’t had any business experience but I became rich in 5 years.
no sooner … than
no sooner + past perfect + than +simple past
- She had no sooner finished cooking than her friend came in. [normal:regular]
- No sooner had she finished cooking than her friend came in. [devrik: inverted]
hardly/scarcely … when/before
no sooner + past perfect + when/before +simple past
- Jim had hardly/scarcely reached London when he was called back. [normal:regular]
- Hardly had Jim reached London when he was called back. [devrik: inverted]
- Hardly had a moment passed before the door creaked open.
- Geçmişte UNREAL durumlar: Yapının past perfect ancak anlamın past’ı kastettiği kullanımlar
- wish clause
- It’s a pity you were absent from the meeting yesterday. I wish you had been present.
- if only= I wish
- If only he had studied his lessons instead of wasting of time.
- would rather, would sooner, would just as soon33
- My friend took me to the student opera. I’d rather he had taken me to the theater instead.
- If clause
- If he had studied hard last year, he could have passed all his exams.
- as if, as though
- She acts as if nothing had happened yesterday.34
- Reported speech durumunda hem pastın hem de present perfectin geçmişi olarak kullanılır.
- “I have read five books so far.” “She said she had read five books until that time.”
- “I read five books in 2002.” “She said she had read five books in 2002.”
33 Would genellikle ’d olarak kısaltılır. Had yardımcı fiili ile karıştırılmamalı.
34 Görüldüğü gibi bir anda present tense ile past perfect yan yana gelmiş oldular.